A1 Journal article (refereed)
Dual-stage and dual-deficit? Word recognition processes during text reading across the reading fluency continuum (2022)

Hautala, J., Hawelka, S., & Aro, M. (2022). Dual-stage and dual-deficit? Word recognition processes during text reading across the reading fluency continuum. Reading and writing, 35(3), 663-686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-021-10201-1

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Hautala, Jarkko; Hawelka, Stefan; Aro, Mikko

Journal or series: Reading and writing

ISSN: 0922-4777

eISSN: 1573-0905

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 23/08/2021

Volume: 35

Issue number: 3

Pages range: 663-686

Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication country: Netherlands

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-021-10201-1

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77473


Central questions in the study of visual word recognition and developmental dyslexia are whether early lexical activation precedes and supports decoding (a dual-stage view) or not (dual-route view), and the locus of deficits in dysfluent reading. The dual-route view predicts early word frequency and length interaction, whereas the dual-stage view predicts word frequency effect to precede the interaction effect. These predictions were tested on eye movements data collected from (n = 152) children aged 9–10 among whom reading dysfluency was overrepresented. In line with the dual-stage view, the results revealed an early word frequency effect in first fixation duration followed by robust word length effect in refixation probability and an interaction of word frequency and word length in summed refixation duration. This progression was advanced in fluent reading to be observable already in first fixation duration. Poor reading fluency was mostly explained by inflated first fixation durations, and to stronger word frequency and length effects in summed refixation duration. This pattern of results suggests deficits in early letter encoding and slowness in serial grapheme-phoneme conversion. In contrast to the widely held belief, the holistic orthographic processing of words seemed to be intact.

Keywords: literacy; developmental disabilities (mental and physical); dyslexia; words; length; eye movements

Free keywords: word recognition; eye movements; developmental dyslexia; word length; word frequency

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2023-30-08 at 09:47