A1 Journal article (refereed)
Energy availability during training camp is associated with signs of overreaching and changes in performance in young female cross-country skiers (2021)


Kettunen, O., Ihalainen, J. K., Ohtonen, O., Valtonen, M., Mursu, J., & Linnamo, V. (2021). Energy availability during training camp is associated with signs of overreaching and changes in performance in young female cross-country skiers. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 13(1), 246-254. https://doi.org/10.2478/bhk-2021-0030


JYU authors or editors


Publication details

All authors or editorsKettunen, Oona; Ihalainen, Johanna K.; Ohtonen, Olli; Valtonen, Maarit; Mursu, Jaakko; Linnamo, Vesa

Journal or seriesBiomedical Human Kinetics

eISSN2080-2234

Publication year2021

Publication date01/01/2021

Volume13

Issue number1

Pages range246-254

PublisherSciendo

Publication countryPoland

Publication languageEnglish

DOIhttps://doi.org/10.2478/bhk-2021-0030

Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/77926


Abstract

Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate if young female skiers meet their energy and macronutrient requirements, and how energy availability (EA) and macronutrient intake affects their performance during an intensive training camp. Material and methods: 19 female cross-country skiers (age 16.7 ± 0.7) filled in 48-hour food and training logs during a 5-day training camp. Fasting concentrations of hemoglobin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and glucose were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the camp. Blood lactate (LA), heart rate (HR) and rating of per-ceived exertion (RPE) from a submaximal treadmill running test, jump height from counter movement jump (CMJ), and power from a reactive jump test (RJ) were also measured PRE and POST. Results: Mean EA was 40.3 ± 17.3 kcal · kgFFM–1 · d–1. 58% of the participants had suboptimal EA, 37% had low EA, and 53% had suboptimal carbohydrate intake. HR, HR/RPE ratio, LA/RPE ratio, CMJ, hemoglobin, leptin, T3, and insulin de-creased from PRE to POST. RPE and glucose increased from PRE to POST. EA during the camp correlated with changes in LA (r = 0.54, p = 0.018), LA/RPE (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), and RJ (r = 0.47, p = 0.043). Conclusions: Many athletes had difficulties in meeting their energy and carbohydrate requirements during a training camp. Furthermore, sufficient EA may help to avoid overreaching and to maintain performance during an intensive training period.


Keywordsathleteswomentrainingnutritionnutritional requirementsnutrient supplycarbohydratesperformance (capacity)overtraining

Free keywordsCarbohydrate; Female athlete; Macronutrient


Contributing organizations


Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating1


Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 17:36