A3 Book section, Chapters in research books
Autonomy and Agency (2022)

Kalaja, P., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2022). Autonomy and Agency. In T. Gregersen, & S. Mercer (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Psychology of Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 245-259). Routledge. Routledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429321498-22

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKalaja, Paula; Ruohotie-Lyhty, Maria

Parent publicationThe Routledge Handbook of the Psychology of Language Learning and Teaching

Parent publication editorsGregersen, Tammy; Mercer, Sarah



Journal or seriesRoutledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics

Publication year2022

Publication date28/09/2021

Pages range245-259

Number of pages in the book446


Place of PublicationNew York

Publication countryUnited States

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/78026


This chapter reviews autonomy and agency as related to second language (L2) learner and teacher psychology. It discusses the significance of the two constructs in understanding the personal, yet socially mediated nature of L2 learning and teaching processes. Psychology and education seem to be the main disciplines that have influenced developments in fostering on autonomy in second language acquisition (SLA). Research on autonomy has typically been conducted on the initiative of a teacher or groups of teachers working in their specific educational contexts and with their specific groups of students. Compared to agency, autonomy has had a much longer history in SLA, and it has been researched much more widely, yet still with a heavy emphasis on learners. Whereas research on agency has focused on contextually enacted ways of participating, research on autonomy has focused on the developing degree of independence and control of that participation.

Keywordslanguageslearninglanguage learningsecond languageindependence (personal)motivation (mental objects)human agencypsychology of learning

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 19:07