A1 Journal article (refereed)
Utilization of waste sodium sulfate from battery chemical production in neutral electrolytic pickling (2021)

Tuovinen, T., Tynjälä, P., Vielma, T., & Lassi, U. (2021). Utilization of waste sodium sulfate from battery chemical production in neutral electrolytic pickling. Journal of Cleaner Production, 324, Article 129237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129237

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsTuovinen, Teemu; Tynjälä, Pekka; Vielma, Tuomas; Lassi, Ulla

Journal or seriesJournal of Cleaner Production



Publication year2021


Article number129237


Publication countryNetherlands

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/78255


Several industrial activities produce metal sulfates, which are controlled by strict limitations for wastewater concentrations of sulfate. One emerging area where these activities occur is the production of lithium-ion battery chemicals in which sodium sulfates are formed because of cathode precursor co-precipitation. Several solutions for sulfate removal exist, but one option is to reuse the sulfate side stream in other processes to increase circular economy and atom efficiency. In this paper, the reuse of sodium sulfate solution in a steel industry pickling solution is considered. Neutral electrolytic pickling experiments were carried out to compare the pickling behavior of the electrolyte dissolved from pure sodium sulfate and the electrolyte diluted from a side stream solution. Effect of impure electrolyte was evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Concentrations of the metal ions were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated a slight increase in current efficiency with the side stream electrolyte solution, while overall the pickling behavior remained similar. This suggests that a side stream sodium sulfate solution could be used as a pickling electrolyte, reducing the need for pure reagents.

Keywordsenergy industryaccumulatorsindustrial sewagewaste water treatmentsulfatesrecovery (recapture)reusesteel industryelectrolysis

Free keywordsSodium sulfate; Battery chemical; Electrolytic pickling

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 17:16