A1 Journal article (refereed)
Longitudinal and cross‐sectional associations of adherence to 24‐hour movement guidelines with cardiometabolic risk (2022)

Leppänen, M. H., Haapala, E. A., Väistö, J., Ekelund, U., Brage, S., Kilpeläinen, T. O., & Lakka, T. A. (2022). Longitudinal and cross‐sectional associations of adherence to 24‐hour movement guidelines with cardiometabolic risk. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 32(1), 255-266. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14081

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Leppänen, Marja H.; Haapala, Eero A.; Väistö, Juuso; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lakka, Timo A.

Journal or series: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

ISSN: 0905-7188

eISSN: 1600-0838

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 13/10/2021

Volume: 32

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 255-266

Publisher: Wiley

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14081

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/78276


This study aimed to examine 1) adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines over a 2-year follow-up in children aged 6-8 years and 2) association of this adherence with cardiometabolic risk factors. Physical activity and sleep were assessed by a monitor combining heart rate and accelerometry measurements. Screen time was reported by the parents. Body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma lipids and blood pressure were assessed, and a cardiometabolic risk score was calculated using z-scores. Children were classified as meeting the guidelines if they had on average ≥60min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the valid days; ≤120min/day of screen time; and 9–11h/day of sleep. In total, 485 children had valid data at baseline or at 2-year follow-up. Analyses were conducted using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Most children adhered to the 24-hour movement guidelines at baseline, but the adherence decreased over the 2-year follow-up. Meeting physical activity guidelines individually, or in combination with screen time and/or sleep, was longitudinally associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk score, insulin and waist circumference, and cross-sectionally additionally with lower diastolic blood pressure and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, these associations became statistically non-significant after adjustment for body fat. In conclusion, meeting 24-hour movement guidelines at baseline increases the odds of meeting them at 2-year follow-up in school-aged children. Furthermore, meeting 24-hour movement guidelines is associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors, but these associations are partly explained by lower body fat. Thus, promoting movement behaviors, especially physical activity, and healthy weight in early childhood is important in supporting cardiometabolic health in children.

Keywords: physical training; physical activeness; children (age groups); cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; overweight; fat percentage; blood sugar; blood pressure; insulin; sleep; early childhood; health behaviour; health promotion; health education

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

Preliminary JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 14:50