A1 Journal article (refereed)
Cardiovascular responses to dynamic and static upper-body exercise in a cold environment in coronary artery disease patients (2022)

Valtonen, R. I. P., Hintsala, H. H. E., Kiviniemi, A., Kenttä, T., Crandall, C., van Marken, L. W., Perkiömäki, J., Hautala, A., Jaakkola, J. J. K., & Ikäheimo, T. M. (2022). Cardiovascular responses to dynamic and static upper-body exercise in a cold environment in coronary artery disease patients. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(1), 223-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04826-x

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Valtonen, Rasmus I. P.; Hintsala, Heidi H. E.; Kiviniemi, Antti; Kenttä, Tuomas; Crandall, Craig; van Marken, Lichtenbelt Wouter; Perkiömäki, Juha; Hautala, Arto; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.

Journal or series: European Journal of Applied Physiology

ISSN: 1439-6319

eISSN: 1439-6327

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 16/10/2021

Volume: 122

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 223-232

Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media

Publication country: Germany

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04826-x

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/78278


Upper-body exercise performed in a cold environment may increase cardiovascular strain, which could be detrimental to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study compared cardiovascular responses of CAD patients during graded upper-body dynamic and static exercise in cold and neutral environments.

20 patients with stable CAD performed 30 min of progressive dynamic (light, moderate, and heavy rating of perceived exertion) and static (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction) upper body exercise in cold (− 15 °C) and neutral (+ 22 °C) environments. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiographic (ECG) responses were recorded and rate pressure product (RPP) calculated.

Dynamic-graded upper-body exercise in the cold increased HR by 2.3–4.8% (p = 0.002–0.040), MAP by 3.9–5.9% (p = 0.038–0.454) and RPP by 18.1–24.4% (p = 0.002–0.020) when compared to the neutral environment. Static graded upper-body exercise in the cold resulted in higher MAP (6.3–9.1%; p = 0.000–0.014), lower HR (4.1–7.2%; p = 0.009–0.033), but unaltered RPP compared to a neutral environment. Heavy dynamic exercise resulted in ST depression that was not related to temperature. Otherwise, ECG was largely unaltered during exercise in either thermal condition.

Dynamic- and static-graded upper-body exercise in the cold involves higher cardiovascular strain compared with a neutral environment among patients with stable CAD. However, no marked changes in electric cardiac function were observed. The results support the use of upper-body exercise in the cold in patients with stable CAD.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; coronary disease; exercise (people); cold; physical stress; physical strain

Free keywords: Upper body; Dynamic; Static; Coronary artery disease

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 15:41