A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review
Working hours : tracking the current and future trends (2021)

Anttila, T., Härmä, M., & Oinas, T. (2021). Working hours : tracking the current and future trends. Industrial Health, 59(5), 285-292. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2021-0086

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Anttila, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Oinas, Tomi

Journal or series: Industrial Health

ISSN: 0019-8366

eISSN: 1880-8026

Publication year: 2021

Publication date: 18/08/2021

Volume: 59

Issue number: 5

Pages range: 285-292

Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Health

Publication country: Japan

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2021-0086

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/78728

Additional information: Revision001 of this article published with the name: "Research and Practice of Occupational Health and Safety in the “New Normal”


It is important to track the trends of future working hours, since working hours have strong associations to everyday life and work-life interaction, but also to health. In this paper we aim to track the current and future trends in working hours. We discuss the trends through the key dimensions of working hours: the length, timing, tempo and autonomy. We also consider the role of current trends of spatial changes of work. Changes in working time patterns are fostered by several driving factors: globalization and business restructuring challenging the current work organizations, new information technologies, demographic and climate change and the current and future pandemics. The past and current tremendous changes in working hours indicate that changes in working hours will continue. The contemporary trends in future working hours pose risks for personal, family and social life, material well-being and health. At its best, however, the new post-industrial working time regime may provide more autonomy and time for recovery to employees as new technologies and changes in business structures release opportunities for greater individual autonomy over how, where, and for how long paid work is performed.

Keywords: working hours; shift work; work burden; autonomy (cognition); working life; trends

Free keywords: working hours; working time; work intensity; shift work; autonomy; working life; trends

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 13:16