A1 Journal article (refereed)
Changes in Body Composition, Energy Metabolites and Electrolytes During Winter Survival Training in Male Soldiers (2022)

Nykänen, T., Ojanen, T., Heikkinen, R., Fogelholm, M., & Kyröläinen, H. (2022). Changes in Body Composition, Energy Metabolites and Electrolytes During Winter Survival Training in Male Soldiers. Frontiers in Physiology, 13, Article 797268. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.797268

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Nykänen, Tarja; Ojanen, Tommi; Heikkinen, Risto; Fogelholm, Mikael; Kyröläinen, Heikki

Journal or series: Frontiers in Physiology

eISSN: 1664-042X

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 16/02/2022

Volume: 13

Article number: 797268

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.797268

Persistent website address: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2022.797268/full

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/79920

Additional information: The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2022.797268/full#supplementary-material


The aim of this study was to examine changes in body composition, energy metabolites and electrolytes during a 10-day winter survival training period. Two groups of male soldiers were examined: the REC group (n = 26; age 19.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI 23.9 ± 2.7) had recovery period between days 6 and 8 in the survival training, whereas the EXC group (n = 42; age 19.6 ± 0.8 years; BMI 23.1 ± 2.8) did not. The following data were collected: body composition (bioimpedance), energy balance (food diaries, heart rate variability measurements), and biomarkers (blood samples). In survival training, estimated energy balance was highly negative: −4,323 ± 1,515 kcal/d (EXC) and −4,635 ± 1,742 kcal/d (REC). Between days 1 and 10, body mass decreased by 3.9% (EXC) and 3.0% (REC). On day 6, free fatty acid and urea levels increased, whereas leptin, glucose and potassium decreased in all. Recovery period temporarily reversed some of the changes (body mass, leptin, free fatty acids, and urea) toward baseline levels. Survival training caused a severe energy deficit and reductions in body mass. The early stage of military survival training seems to alter energy, hormonal and fluid metabolism, but these effects disappear after an active recovery period.

Keywords: military education; energy consumption (metabolism); metabolism; body composition; performance (capacity); recovery (return)

Free keywords: military training; energy deficit; fat mass; biomarkers; recovery

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 13:33