A1 Journal article (refereed)
“The Best Laid Plans” : Do Individual Differences in Planfulness Moderate Effects of Implementation Intention Interventions? (2022)

Sas, S. V., Hamilton, K., & Hagger, M. S. (2022). “The Best Laid Plans” : Do Individual Differences in Planfulness Moderate Effects of Implementation Intention Interventions?. Behavioral Sciences, 12(2), Article 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020047

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsSas, Sabryna V.; Hamilton, Kyra; Hagger, Martin S.

Journal or seriesBehavioral Sciences


Publication year2022

Publication date14/02/2022


Issue number2

Article number47

PublisherMDPI AG

Publication countrySwitzerland

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/80233

Publication is parallel publishedhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8869571/


While there is good evidence supporting the positive effect of planning strategies like implementation intentions on the relationship between intention and behavior, there is less evidence on the moderating role of individual differences in planning capacity on this effect. This study aimed to examine the role of individual differences in planfulness on the effect of planning strategies on the intention–behavior gap. Specifically, this study investigated the influence of planfulness on the effectiveness of implementation intentions on goal-directed behavior using an experimental design. Undergraduate university students (N = 142) with high and low levels of planfulness based on a priori scores on a planfulness measure were randomized to either a planning (implementation intention) or familiarization (control) condition prior to completing a computerized go no-go task. We predicted that individuals reporting low levels of planfulness would be more effective in executing goal-directed behavior when prompted to form an implementation intention compared to individuals who do not receive a prompt. Additionally, we predicted that individuals reporting high planfulness would be equally effective in enacting goal-directed behaviour regardless of whether they formed an implementation intention. The results revealed no main or interaction effects of implementation intention manipulation and planfulness on task reaction times. The current results do not provide support for the moderating effect of planfulness on the implementation effect. The findings of this study were inconsistent with previous literature. This research has implications for the effectiveness of implementation intentions, as well as opportunities for further replication in a novel research area.

Keywordsbehavioural psychologyintentionplanning and designpersonality traitsmethodicalnesspsychological tests

Free keywordsplanfulness; planning; implementation intentions; intentions; personality; go no-go; reaction times

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 19:05