A1 Journal article (refereed)
Activated carbon from hydrolysis lignin : Effect of activation method on carbon properties (2022)

Bergna, D., Varila, T., Romar, H., & Lassi, U. (2022). Activated carbon from hydrolysis lignin : Effect of activation method on carbon properties. Biomass and Bioenergy, 159, Article 106387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2022.106387

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsBergna, Davide; Varila, Toni; Romar, Henrik; Lassi, Ulla

Journal or seriesBiomass and Bioenergy



Publication year2022

Publication date24/02/2022


Article number106387

PublisherElsevier BV

Publication countryNetherlands

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/80504


This study presents the effects of different activation methods to produce activated carbon from the hydrolysis lignin. Pretreatment of the feedstock with common mineral acids (HCL, HNO3, and H3PO4), different steam rates for physical activation, and different chemical activating agents (ZnCl2, Na2CO3, and KOH) for chemical activation were investigated. The pretreated biomass was carbonized and activated in one-stage process and the surface characteristics, such as total pore volume, pore size distribution and specific surface area, were investigated. The results showed that the activated carbon surface properties were not greatly affected by acid pretreatment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas as high as 616 m2/g could be achieved with physical activation and 2054 m2/g with chemical activation. Different steam rates in the selected interval (0.5–2 cm3/min) did not change the pore size distribution but had small positive effect on the specific surface area, while chemical activation with ZnCl2 increased the mesoporosity, and activation with KOH increased the microporosity and oxygen groups in the form of ether and alcohol bonds.

Keywordsactivated carbonbiomass (industry)ligninhydrolysispreliminary treatmentporosity

Free keywordsacid pretreatment; hydrolysis lignin; activated carbon; physical activation; surface area

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 18:35