A3 Book section, Chapters in research books
Smooth sailing toward more peaceful societies? Long-run Nordic development paths (2022)

Eloranta, J., Ojala, J., & Sabaté, O. (2022). Smooth sailing toward more peaceful societies? Long-run Nordic development paths. In C. Lloyd, & M. Hannikainen (Eds.), Social Cohesion and Welfare States : From Fragmentation to Social Peace (pp. 28-56). Routledge. Perspectives in Economic and Social History. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429503870-3

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsEloranta, Jari; Ojala, Jari; Sabaté, Oriol

Parent publicationSocial Cohesion and Welfare States : From Fragmentation to Social Peace

Parent publication editorsLloyd, Chrisopher; Hannikainen, Matti


eISBN 978-0-429-50387-0

Journal or seriesPerspectives in Economic and Social History

Publication year2022

Publication date13/04/2022

Pages range28-56

Number of pages in the book230


Place of PublicationAbingdon

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/80845


In this chapter, the authors aim to compare the Nordic societies in a broad fashion in the last 200 years in their process of “sailing” (with the implication of rough waters along the way) from social fragmentation to more inclusive welfare societies. The authors’ main goal is to examine the coevolution of economic, political, and fiscal factors among the Nordic societies in the long run by making use of recent longitudinal data sets. In this way, they can map out some key patterns that characterized the shift toward more peaceful and well-functioning societies. First, the authors focus on the process towards economic and political convergence that took place, with some exceptions, in the latter part of the 20th century. Second, they also examine how these processes of convergence translated into the realm of fiscal and social policies and to what extent they were related to decreasing levels of social fragmentation. The chapter shows that the paths towards welfare states were not uniform among the Nordic countries and that some of the pivotal forces and periods were connected to various types of crises, namely, that these were not processes that were smooth or inevitable. The chapter concludes with some general findings and a discussion of current-day problems among the Nordic societies from a comparative historical perspective.

Keywordswelfare statesocietyprogress of a societyeconomic developmentstructural changesocial policysocietal policyeconomic historyinternational comparisoneconomydevelopment (passive)fragmentation

Free keywordsNordic countries

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 17:15