A3 Book section, Chapters in research books
Estonia : From analog to digital - one step forward but two steps back? (2022)

Loit, U., Lauk, E., & Harro-Loit, H. (2022). Estonia : From analog to digital - one step forward but two steps back?. In S. Fengler, T. Eberwein, & M. Karmasin (Eds.), The Global Handbook of Media Accountability (pp. 175-183). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429326943-19

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLoit, Urmas; Lauk, Epp; Harro-Loit, Halliki

Parent publicationThe Global Handbook of Media Accountability

Parent publication editorsFengler, Susanne; Eberwein, Tobias; Karmasin, Matthias



Publication year2022

Publication date16/11/2021

Pages range175-183

Number of pages in the book632


Place of PublicationAbingdon, Oxon

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/80820


In Estonia, the key decisions concerning media accountability were made in the 1990s: First, a press council was established in 1991, then a code of ethics was adopted in 1997, and an ombudsperson institution for the public broadcasting was established in 2007. Since then, there has not been any improvement – the accountability system has not been adapted to the challenges of digitalization and the internet, and even the code of ethics has not been amended accordingly. However, Estonia has steadily occupied high positions in the global press freedom rankings, which evidences that the general political environment is favorable for media freedom. Estonian journalists are cynical about self-regulation practices, but they still seem to believe in the potential impact of traditional media accountability instruments on media performance.

Keywordsmediamass mediamass communicationpress (mass media)freedom of speechdigitalisation

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 17:27