A1 Journal article (refereed)
The effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping depends on jumpers’ aerodynamic characteristics (2022)

Virmavirta, M., & Kivekäs, J. (2022). The effect of wind on jumping distance in ski jumping depends on jumpers’ aerodynamic characteristics. Journal of Biomechanics, 137, Article 111101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2022.111101

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha

Journal or series: Journal of Biomechanics

ISSN: 0021-9290

eISSN: 1873-2380

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 26/04/2022

Volume: 137

Article number: 111101

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2022.111101

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/80866


Several studies have suggested re-evaluation of the wind compensation system (WCS) of the International Ski Federation (FIS). It was introduced in 2009, and since then, the system has been modified considerably, but major shortcomings have still remained. The present study compared the effect of tail/head wind on two reference jumps with different aerodynamic properties (Cd and Cl) during the flight phase. Jump distance and total tangential wind speed data of world cup competitions of the season 2020/2021 were used to analyse the FIS WCS and to offer basic information of wind effects. The correlation between the total tangential wind speed and the jump distance varied strongly among the analysed jumping rounds and showed a big variation in the effect of FIS WCS. According to the computer simulation, a steady head/tail wind during the entire flight phase did not show big difference in jump distance between the jumps with different aerodynamic properties. However, wind had a “reverse” effect on the jumps: when applied to the early flight phase, tail wind increased, and head wind decreased the jumping distance. It seems that the favourable wind conditions at the early flight phase may result in an unfair advantage-disadvantage when the current FIS WCS is used. Therefore, based on the present results, the FIS WCS needs to be further discussed and quality of jumpers’ aerodynamic properties re-examined.

Keywords: ski jumping; aerodynamics; wind; simulation

Free keywords: Computer simulation; Wind compensation system

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

Preliminary JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 14:23