A1 Journal article (refereed)
Associations of Children’s Close Reading Distance and Time Spent Indoors with Myopia, Based on Parental Questionnaire (2022)

Pärssinen, O., Lassila, E., & Kauppinen, M. (2022). Associations of Children’s Close Reading Distance and Time Spent Indoors with Myopia, Based on Parental Questionnaire. Children, 9(5), 632. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050632

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Pärssinen, Olavi; Lassila, Essi; Kauppinen, Markku

Journal or series: Children

eISSN: 2227-9067

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 28/04/2022

Volume: 9

Issue number: 5

Pages range: 632

Publisher: MDPI AG

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050632

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/83850


Purpose: To study the association of parents’ reports about their children’s near work and outdoor habits with myopia in their children. Methods: Data from a questionnaire study conducted in 1983 among Finnish schoolchildren were reanalyzed. Vision screening had been performed for all the schoolchildren (n = 4961) in the 1st, 5th, and 8th grades (7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds) in an area of Central Finland. The questionnaire, including information about myopia, was returned by 4305 (86.7%) participants. Items concerned parents’ estimates of their child’s habitual reading distance, time spent indoors as compared with age peers, daily near work, outdoors time, and parents’ myopia. The associations of myopia with these factors were studied. Results: Myopia prevalence in those with a habitual close reading distance vs. others was 14.3% vs. 2.1%, 28.7% vs. 13.1% and 45.8% vs. 24.7% for the 7-, 11- and 15-year-olds (p < 0.001 in all age-groups). Myopia prevalence in children reported by their parents as spending more time indoors than age peers was 10.9% vs. 2.8% (p < 0.001), 25.0% vs. 14.7% (p = 0.004) and 41.9% vs. 25.7% (p < 0.001) in the three age groups. Myopia prevalence among those reported as spending both more time indoors and reading at a close distance vs. others was 44.2% vs. 11.9% (Fisher’s exact t-test, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, parental myopia almost doubled the risk of myopia in the 11- and 15-year-olds. ORs (95% CI) for myopia adjusted for parental myopia and sex were for close reading distance 7.381 (4.054–13.440), 2.382 (1.666–3.406), 2.237 (1.498–3.057), (p < 0.001), and for more time spent indoors, 3.692 (1.714–7.954), p = 0.001, 1.861 (1.157–2.992), p = 0.010), 1.700 (1.105–2.615), p = 0.016, in the three age groups. Conclusion: Children, especially 7-year-olds, reported by their parents as having a close reading distance and spending a lot of time indoors were associated with a higher risk for myopia.

Keywords: myopia; children (age groups); young people; eyesight; parents; time use; reading; outdoor recreation; heredity; genetic factors; occurence; risk factors; questionnaire survey

Free keywords: parents opinion; children’s myopia; close reading distance; time spent indoors; outdoors; parents’ myopia; questionnaire study

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-30-08 at 09:58