A1 Journal article (refereed)
Co-designing a pedagogical framework and principles for a hybrid STEM learning environment design (2022)

Mäkelä, T., Fenyvesi, K., Kankaanranta, M., Pnevmatikos, D., & Christodoulou, P. (2022). Co-designing a pedagogical framework and principles for a hybrid STEM learning environment design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 70(4), 1329-1357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-022-10114-y

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Mäkelä, Tiina; Fenyvesi, Kristóf; Kankaanranta, Marja; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Christodoulou, Panagiota

Journal or series: Educational Technology Research and Development

ISSN: 1042-1629

eISSN: 1556-6501

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 17/05/2022

Volume: 70

Issue number: 4

Pages range: 1329-1357

Publisher: Springer

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-022-10114-y

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/81200


The importance of engaging and effective learning environments for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has been internationally recognised. However, no comprehensive pedagogical frameworks exist that support STEM learning environment design. In this study, a pedagogical framework and principles for STEM learning environment design were created based on participatory focus groups involving 10–18-year-old students, teachers, school directors, parents, university students and STEM professionals. Representatives of key stakeholder groups in Belarus, Finland, Germany, Greece and Spain (total n = 132) were invited to focus group discussions in which their wishes related to the pedagogical framework were collected. A second focus group discussion session, engaging the same stakeholder groups (total n = 137), was implemented to validate the framework. A final review for the framework and its design principles was conducted in online focus group sessions, involving 20 experts in curriculum, STEM, educational policy and/or educational technology from all participant countries. The co-designed framework, which is strengthened by the research literature, entails the following design principle categories: (1) General principles, (2) Cross-curricular skills, (3) Ways of teaching and learning, (4) Socio-emotional aspects and (5) Educational compatibility. The design principles created in this study have been employed in developing a hybrid (virtual, physical, formal, non-formal and informal) STEM environment, but they can be employed in any (STEM) learning environment design. Instead of focusing on singular design principles, we recommend considering a wide range of different design principles in order to support multiple ways of teaching and learning and to develop both subject-related and cross-curricular competencies.

Keywords: learning environment; pedagogical planning; participatory planning

Free keywords: focus group; learning environment; participatory co-design; pedagogical design principles; pedagogical framework; STEM

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-10-01 at 12:41