A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review
α-Aminophosphonates, Phosphinates, and Phosphine Oxides as Extraction and Precipitation Agents for Rare Earth Metals, Thorium, and Uranium : A Review (2022)

Kukkonen, E., Virtanen, E., & Moilanen, J. (2022). α-Aminophosphonates, Phosphinates, and Phosphine Oxides as Extraction and Precipitation Agents for Rare Earth Metals, Thorium, and Uranium : A Review. Molecules, 27(11), Article 3465. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113465

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Kukkonen, Esa; Virtanen, Emilia; Moilanen, Jani

Journal or series: Molecules

eISSN: 1420-3049

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 27/05/2022

Volume: 27

Issue number: 11

Article number: 3465

Publisher: MDPI AG

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113465

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/81815


α-Aminophosphonates, -phosphinates, and -phosphine oxides are a group of organophosphorus compounds that were investigated as extraction agents for rare earth (RE) metals and actinoids for the first time in the 1960s. However, more systematic investigations of their extraction properties towards REs and actinoids were not started until the 2010s. Indeed, recent studies have shown that these α-amino-functionalized compounds can outperform the commercial organophosphorus extraction agents in RE separations. They have also proven to be very efficient extraction and precipitation agents for recovering Th and U from RE concentrates. These actinoids coexist with REs in some of the commercially important RE-containing minerals. The efficient separation and purification of REs is becoming more and more important every year as these elements have a pivotal role in many existing technologies. If one also considers the facile synthesis of α-amino-functionalized organophosphorus extractants and precipitation agents, it is expected that they will be increasingly utilized in the extraction chemistry of REs and actinoids in the future. This review collates α-aminophosphonates, -phosphinates, and -phosphine oxides that have been utilized in the separation chemistry of REs and actinoids, including their most relevant synthetic routes and molecular properties. Their extraction and precipitation properties towards REs and actinoids are also discussed.

Keywords: rare earth metals; separation methods; extraction (chemistry); precipitation (active); phosphorus

Free keywords: α-aminophosphonates; α-aminophosphinates; α-aminophosphine oxides; rare earth elements; actinoids; separation; recovery; extraction; precipitation

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Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-02-05 at 13:04