A1 Journal article (refereed)
Children’s beliefs concerning their school performance at the end of the first grade in Finland (2023)

Eskelä-Haapanen, S., Pakarinen, E., & Lerkkanen, M.-K. (2023). Children’s beliefs concerning their school performance at the end of the first grade in Finland. Early Child Development and Care, 193(3), 305-318. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2022.2089132

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsEskelä-Haapanen, Sirpa; Pakarinen, Eija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

Journal or seriesEarly Child Development and Care



Publication year2023

Publication date17/06/2022


Issue number3

Pages range305-318


Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/82117


This study examines primary-school children’s beliefs about their school performance at the end of their first school year in Finland and feedback that they have received, and furthermore possible gender differences between these beliefs. Children from Grade 1 (N = 544), approximately 7 years old, were interviewed. The data were assessed using problem-driven content analyzis and inductive reasoning. The analyzis revealed ten categories of children’s beliefs regarding their school success and failure. The results showed that more than one-third of the children believed that they were succeeding well at school. More boys than girls mentioned that they succeeded in mathematics, and more girls than boys mentioned that they succeeded in literacy. Based on the interviews, teachers rarely gave feedback. Even less feedback was reportedly given by teachers when the children believed that they were performing poorly. Therefore, different modes of giving feedback and the way feedback is provided should be carefully considered.

Keywordschildren (age groups)lower comprehensive school pupilsschool achievementsconceptionsfeedbackgender differencesteacher-pupil relationship

Free keywordsbeliefs; school performance; feedback; gender differences; teacher’s role

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-02-07 at 23:07