A2 Review article, Literature review, Systematic review
How to evaluate first aid skills after training : a systematic review (2022)

Sihvo, M., Hiltunen, L., & Kärkkäinen, T. (2022). How to evaluate first aid skills after training : a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 30, Article 56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13049-022-01043-z

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Sihvo, Minna; Hiltunen, Leena; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

Journal or series: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine

eISSN: 1757-7241

Publication year: 2022

Publication date: 08/11/2022

Volume: 30

Article number: 56

Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13049-022-01043-z

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/83877


To be able to help and save lives, laypersons are recommended to undergo first aid trainings. The aim of this review was to explore the variety of the elements of the measuring systems to assess the effects of first aid trainings on different aspects of first aid skills including practical skills, knowledge, and emotional perspectives.

This systematic literature review used Scopus and PubMed databases and searched for studies published between January, 2000, and December, 2020. Out of 2,162 studies meeting the search criteria, 15 studies with quantitative and repeatable evaluation methods to assess first aid skills after first aid training for adults were included in the final analysis.

Practical skills, especially on the ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and to use an automated external defibrillator, were the most studied first aid skills after first aid training. This evaluation was based on several standardized measurements and assessed often with the help of a combination of resuscitation manikin and observer. Evaluation methods of performance in other emergency situations are not well standardized. Questionnaires used to assess knowledge of first aid, though seemingly based on guidelines, were also not standardized, either. Emotional aspects of first aid (willingness or self-confidence) were evaluated by highly simplified questionnaires, and answers were graded by five-point Likert scale.

According to our review, the focus of evaluation methods after first aid training has been on practical skills and especially on CPR. Though the evaluation of first-aid knowledge seems to be straightforward, it is not performed systematically. Evaluation methods for emotional aspects are highly simplified. Overall, standardized measurements and evaluation methods to assess all aspects of first aid skills are needed.

Keywords: first aid; education and training; resuscitation; emergency situations; know-how; evaluation methods; systematic reviews

Free keywords: first aid training; evaluation method

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2022

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-03-10 at 11:52