A1 Journal article (refereed)
EU heritage diplomacy : entangled external and internal cultural relations (2023)

Mäkinen, K., Lähdesmäki, T., Kaasik-Krogerus, S., Čeginskas, V. L. A., & Turunen, J. (2023). EU heritage diplomacy : entangled external and internal cultural relations. The International Journal of Cultural Policy, 29(1), 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2022.2141722

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsMäkinen, Katja; Lähdesmäki, Tuuli; Kaasik-Krogerus, Sigrid; Čeginskas, Viktorija L. A.; Turunen, Johanna

Journal or seriesThe International Journal of Cultural Policy



Publication year2023

Publication date22/12/2022


Issue number1

Pages range9-22

PublisherRoutledge Taylor & Francis Group

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/85561

Additional informationArtikkeli julkaistu myös teoksessa: Lähdesmäki, T., Čeginskas, V.L.A. (eds.), Heritage Diplomacy : Discourses, Imaginaries and Practices of Heritage and Power. Routledge, 2024. ISBN 9781032535029, eISBN 9781003412380


Cultural heritage is an expanding yet contested area of EU policymaking, which has recently been identified as an instrument for EU international cultural relations. In this article, drawing from critical heritage studies and recent scholarship on heritage diplomacy, we see external and internal cultural relations as blurred and deeply entangled in EU heritage policies. Empirically, we focus on the European Heritage Label (EHL), a central EU heritage policy instrument. We explore how heritage practitioners at selected EHL sites and EU heritage policymakers understand and give meanings to international cultural relations and explain the role of cultural heritage in diplomatic endeavours. Our method is a dynamic frame analysis of 44 interviews conducted in the European Commission and at eleven EHL sites in ten European countries. The analysis identified four frames of international cultural relations in the data: relations with non-EU countries for peace and stability building, showcasing and branding of cultural heritage for foreign audiences, creating unity in Europe, and small-scale international heritage projects. These frames manifest different understandings of heritage diplomacy ranging from geoculture to shared heritage and from intercultural encounters to the use of soft power.

Keywordscultural heritagecultural relationscultural policyEuropean Union countriesinternational relationsinternational cooperationculturediplomacydecision makingbrandingdistinctive marks

Free keywordsEuropean Union; European Heritage Label; international cultural relations; heritage diplomacy

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Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-15-05 at 13:02