A1 Journal article (refereed)
Pääoma hakkuuaukealla : kuitupuukapitalismi metsätalouden tendenssinä (2022)
Capital on a clearcut : pulp capitalism as a tendency of forestry

Kellokumpu, V., & Säynäjäkangas, J. (2022). Pääoma hakkuuaukealla : kuitupuukapitalismi metsätalouden tendenssinä. Alue ja ympäristö, 51(2), 21-45. https://doi.org/10.30663/ay.120651

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKellokumpu, Ville; Säynäjäkangas, Janne

Journal or seriesAlue ja ympäristö



Publication year2022

Publication date16/12/2022


Issue number2

Pages range21-45

PublisherAlue- ja ympäristötutkimuksen seura ry

Publication countryFinland

Publication languageFinnish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/84727


In Finland, forest carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and the overall state of forest ecologies are in decline. Simultaneously, the material demands of the forest industry are rising while the profitability of the industry is falling. We analyze these compounding crises in forest ecologies and forest economies through the tendency of pulp capitalism. We examine historically how the unruly natural forests were brought within the capital relation by increasing their legibility through the methods of scientific forestry. In addition, we scrutinize the economy of pulp capitalism through the tendency of the rate of profit to fall and explain how falling profitability in the forest industry increases the material intensity of production. Capitalist production processes attach to specific resources that are beneficial for the realization of surplus value. Production based on pulpwood has two competitive advantages: Pulpwood has a low-quality threshold and it conforms to the temporality of capital. These structural attributes enable the material intensity of production to be increased. Pulp capitalism helps to understand the cul-de-sac of Finnish forest politics where the economic interests of the pulp and paper industry have become incompatible with other societal and ecological needs that forests are expected to serve.

Keywordsforestsforest policycapitalismmarket economyforestryforest industrynatural resourcesforest resourcescommercial forestspulpwoodcapitalMarxian economics

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 22:06