A1 Journal article (refereed)
Precipitation of potassium as hazenite from washing water of spent alkaline batteries (2022)

Lapinkangas, S., Rautio, L., Kauppinen, T., Hu, T., Pesonen, J., & Lassi, U. (2022). Precipitation of potassium as hazenite from washing water of spent alkaline batteries. Chemical Engineering Journal Advances, 12, Article 100426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceja.2022.100426

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLapinkangas, Suvi; Rautio, Lasse; Kauppinen, Toni; Hu, Tao; Pesonen, Janne; Lassi, Ulla

Journal or seriesChemical Engineering Journal Advances


Publication year2022

Publication date15/11/2022


Article number100426

PublisherElsevier BV

Publication countryNetherlands

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/85063


Hazenite (KNaMg2(PO4)2 × 14 H2O), a new type of struvite mineral, was precipitated from the potassium-rich washing water of spent alkaline battery black mass. Hazenite can be used as a fertilizer, which would be an additional benefit derived from the sustainable recovery of battery materials. Precipitation experiments were performed using different pH values (9.5–12), Mg:K:PO4 ratios ((1.0–1.5):1:(1.0–1.5)) and temperatures (10–40 °C). Based on the results, hazenite precipitated in a wide pH range under alkaline conditions. The precipitation kinetics were fast, and the purity of the hazenite was high. Overall, hazenite can be precipitated at room temperature without the addition of excess chemicals, which minimizes the consumption of chemicals and energy.

Keywordsmineralsphosphatesphosphatic fertilizersprecipitation (active)waste electronic and electrical equipmentbatteriescircular economy

Free keywordsstruvite; hazenite; precipitation; alkaline battery; black mass; fertilizer

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2022

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-15-06 at 22:06