A1 Journal article (refereed)
Assessment of students’ agency in Finnish and Spanish university courses : Analysis of measurement invariance (2023)

Jääskelä, P., Tolvanen, A., Marín, V. I., & Poikkeus, A.-M. (2023). Assessment of students’ agency in Finnish and Spanish university courses : Analysis of measurement invariance. International Journal of Educational Research, 118, Article 102140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2023.102140

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsJääskelä, Päivikki; Tolvanen, Asko; Marín, Victoria I.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija

Journal or seriesInternational Journal of Educational Research



Publication year2023


Article number102140


Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/85167


This study reports on the measurement invariance of the Agency of University Students Scale in data consisting of Finnish and Spanish university students (n = 645) and presents cross-national findings on student agency assessment. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the metric invariance for 10 factors, which allows comparisons of covariance structures and correlation analyses, and can, for example, be used to examine background factor effects on agency across groups. At least partial scalar invariance was confirmed for six factors, allowing comparisons of mean values between Finnish and Spanish students. Differences were found in the experiences of personal and relational resources of agency. The analysis discusses the utility of the AUS Scale for large-scale studies of student agency across countries.

Keywordsstudentsstudies in an institution of higher educationhuman agencyexchange students

Free keywordsstudent agency; higher education; cross-national study; measurement invariance; agency of university students scale

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Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-02-07 at 23:27