A1 Journal article (refereed)
Associations between adolescents’ energy drink consumption frequency and several negative health indicators (2023)

Puupponen, M., Tynjälä, J., Välimaa, R., & Paakkari, L. (2023). Associations between adolescents’ energy drink consumption frequency and several negative health indicators. BMC Public Health, 23, Article 258. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15055-6

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsPuupponen, Maija; Tynjälä, Jorma; Välimaa, Raili; Paakkari, Leena

Journal or seriesBMC Public Health


Publication year2023

Publication date06/02/2023


Article number258

PublisherBiomed Central

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/85429


Background: The purpose of this study was to identify how various negative health indicators are associated with energy drink consumption frequency among 13- and 15-year-old Finnish adolescents.
Methods: Data (N=2429) from the nationally representative international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (2018) were analyzed via descriptive analysis and logistic regression analyses, with control for salient covariates. Relative risks (RR) were derived from the adjusted odds ratios.
Results: Even infrequent energy drink consumption was associated with various negative health indicators. Moreover, as compared to non-users, frequent energy drink consumers were more likely to report several health-compromising behaviors: current smoking (RR=9.85, 95% CI: 5.68–16.02), current snus use (RR=3.62, 95% CI: 1.80–6.85), cannabis use (RR=3.42, 95% CI: 1.69–6.52), alcohol consumption (RR=3.08, 95% CI: 2.49–3.71), problematic social media use (RR=2.53, 95% CI:1.68–3.72), short sleep (RR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.69–2.60), skipping breakfast (RR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.51–2.29), drunkenness (RR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.11–2.23), inadequate tooth brushing (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.05–1.54). In addition, frequent energy drink consumption was associated with perceived negative health indicators: feelings of insufcient sleep (RR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.11–2.15), low self-rated health (RR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87), and multiple health complaints (RR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.07–1.56).
Conclusions: Energy drink consumption, even infrequent, was associated with several negative health indicators, and the reporting of these increased with the frequency of energy drink consumption. The fndings support the concerns of health authorities regarding the negative associations between energy drink consumption and health, even among persons as young as 13 years. There is evidence to support specifc policy level actions, including restrictions on the sale of energy drinks to adolescents. This measure has been proposed in a Finnish government program, but implementation has yet to occur. Moreover, marketing of these beverages in platforms that are popular among adolescents (e.g., the social media) should be rigorously evaluated, and comprehensive interventions and actions implemented to ensure that adolescents, parents/guardians, and professionals working with adolescents (e.g., in schools) have a good understanding of the links between energy drink consumption and health.

Keywordsenergy drinksyoung peoplehealth behaviourhealth effects

Free keywordsenergy drinks; adolescent; health behavior; relative risk

Contributing organizations

Related research datasets

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-02-07 at 23:45