A1 Journal article (refereed)
Cross‐sectional associations between physical fitness and biomarkers of inflammation in children : the PANIC study (2023)

Haapala, E. A., Kuronen, E., Ihalainen, J. K., Lintu, N., Leppänen, M. H., Tompuri, T., Atalay, M., Schwab, U., & Lakka, T. A. (2023). Cross‐sectional associations between physical fitness and biomarkers of inflammation in children : the PANIC study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 33(6), 1000-1009. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14337

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHaapala, Eero A.; Kuronen, Emmi; Ihalainen, Johanna K.; Lintu, Niina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Tompuri, Tuomo; Atalay, Mustafa; Schwab, Ursula; Lakka, Timo A.

Journal or seriesScandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports



Publication year2023

Publication date13/02/2023


Issue number6

Pages range1000-1009


Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/87112


Systemic low-grade inflammation has been proposed as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism for cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated the associations of physical fitness with systemic low-grade inflammatory state in a population sample of children.

Altogether 391 children aged 6–9 years were examined. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal power output, Wmax) was assessed by a maximal cycle ergometer test and neuromuscular fitness by hand grip strength, sit-up, standing long jump, 50-metre shuttle run, static balance, sit-and-reach, and box and block tests. Body fat percentage (BF%) and lean mass (LM) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leptin, leptin receptor, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adiponectin), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) were assessed from fasting blood samples. The modified inflammatory score (IS) was calculated using the population specific z-scores and formula (zhs-CRP + zleptin + zIL-6 + zTNF-α + zGlycA) – zleptin receptor – zHMW-adiponectin. The data were analysed using linear regression analyses.

Higher Wmax/kg of body mass (β=-0.416, 95% CI=-0.514 to -0.318), higher number of completed sit-ups (β=-0.147, 95% CI=-0.244 to -0.049), a longer distance jumped in the standing long jump test (β=-0.270, 95% CI=-0.371 to -0.169), and a shorter time in the 50 metre shuttle run test (β=0.123, 95% CI=0.022 to 0.223) were associated with lower IS. None of these associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for BF%

Higher physical fitness is associated with more favourable inflammatory biomarker profile in children. However, the associations were explained by BF%.

Keywordslow-grade inflammationbiomarkersphysical fitnessbody compositionobesitychildren (age groups)

Free keywordsinflammation; biomarkers; physical fitness; fitness; paediatrics; obesity; low-grade inflammation

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-15-05 at 13:01