A1 Journal article (refereed)
Removal of site effects and enhancement of signal using dual projection independent component analysis for pooling multi‐site MRI data (2023)

Hao, Y., Xu, H., Xia, M., Yan, C., Zhang, Y., Zhou, D., Kärkkäinen, T., Nickerson, L. D., Li, H., & Cong, F. (2023). Removal of site effects and enhancement of signal using dual projection independent component analysis for pooling multi‐site MRI data. European Journal of Neuroscience, 58(6), 3466-3487. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.16120

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHao, Yuxing; Xu, Huashuai; Xia, Mingrui; Yan, Chenwei; Zhang, Yunge; Zhou, Dongyue; Kärkkäinen, Tommi; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Li, Huanjie; Cong, Fengyu

Journal or seriesEuropean Journal of Neuroscience



Publication year2023

Publication date30/08/2023


Issue number6

Pages range3466-3487


Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/92577


Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from multi-site studies is a popular approach for constructing larger datasets to greatly enhance the reliability and reproducibility of neuroscience research. However, the scanner/site variability is a significant confound that complicates the interpretation of the results, so effective and complete removal of the scanner/site variability is necessary to realise the full advantages of pooling multi-site datasets. Independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) based harmonisation methods are the two primary methods used to eliminate scanner/site effects. Unfortunately, there are challenges with both ICA-based and GLM-based harmonisation methods to remove site effects completely when the signals of interest and scanner/site effects-related variables are correlated, which may occur in neuroscience studies. In this study, we propose an effective and powerful harmonisation strategy that implements dual projection (DP) theory based on ICA to remove the scanner/site effects more completely. This method can separate the signal effects correlated with site variables from the identified site effects for removal without losing signals of interest. Both simulations and vivo structural MRI datasets, including a dataset from Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II and a travelling subject dataset from the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences, were used to test the performance of a DP-based ICA harmonisation method. Results show that DP-based ICA harmonisation has superior performance for removing site effects and enhancing the sensitivity to detect signals of interest as compared with GLM-based and conventional ICA harmonisation methods.

Keywordsmagnetic resonance imagingsignal processingindependent component analysis

Free keywordsdual projection; harmonisation; independent component analysis; magnetic resonanceimaging; multi-site; site effects

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

Preliminary JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 17:05