A1 Journal article (refereed)
Perceptions of inclusion among lower secondary level students in Finland (2023)

Kyttälä, M., Sinkkonen, H.-M., & Harju-Autti, R. (2023). Perceptions of inclusion among lower secondary level students in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Early online. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2023.2266728

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKyttälä, Minna; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Harju-Autti, Raisa

Journal or seriesScandinavian Journal of Educational Research



Publication year2023

Publication date09/10/2023

VolumeEarly online


Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/89748


This study aims at investigating Finnish lower secondary grade students’ (N = 469) emotional school well-being, social inclusion, and academic self-concept with regard to grade level, linguistic background, and needs for support. For collecting the data, a Finnish translation of the Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire for students was used. The results suggest that, considering the students’ own perceptions, Finnish schools are quite inclusive with regard to students’ linguistic backgrounds. Although the results showed a decrease in emotional well-being, social inclusion, and academic self-concept during the lower secondary level, this decrease was not related to any specific background factors. The results indicate that students receiving support showed lower levels of social inclusion and academic self-concept, suggesting that not all students feel equally included. These findings underline the importance of assessing students’ own perceptions of inclusion. Additionally, educational implications are discussed.

Keywordslower comprehensive school pupilsmental well-beingwell-beingsocial interactioninteraction

Free keywordsperceptions of inclusion questionnaire; lower secondary school; emotional well-being; social interaction; academic self-concept; inclusive education

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-15-05 at 13:23