A1 Journal article (refereed)
The Politics of Economization of Cultural Policy : The institutional changes in the creative economy discourse and entrepreneurial artists in Finnish cultural policy (2023)

Jakonen, O., & Pyykkönen, M. (2023). The Politics of Economization of Cultural Policy : The institutional changes in the creative economy discourse and entrepreneurial artists in Finnish cultural policy. Nordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidskrift, 26(2), 126-145. https://doi.org/10.18261/nkt.26.2.3

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsJakonen, Olli; Pyykkönen, Miikka

Journal or seriesNordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidskrift



Publication year2023

Publication date17/11/2023


Issue number2

Pages range126-145

PublisherScandinavian University Press / Universitetsforlaget AS

Publication countrySweden

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessOpen Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/92040


While the once welfare-oriented Finnish cultural policy system has gradually shifted its focus toward policies driven by austerity and competition, numerous official cultural policy documents promoting the economization of culture and the entrepreneurialization of cultural work have emerged since the turn of the millennium. While most changes have been largely discursive and schematic, there have also been structural and institutional shifts. The Ministry of Education and Culture, through the Arts Promotion Centre Finland, wields more directive power. Additionally, other ministries, such as the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment, have gained influence in cultural policy. Regional and local governance of culture is now closely tied to economic strategies. The number of cultural field entrepreneurs and freelancers has significantly increased, reflecting a “hybridization” of labor market positions. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic intensified discussions about the roles of cultural workers and entrepreneurs within cultural production networks. This article explores the current economic rationale in Finnish cultural policy, encompassing institutions, practices, and discourses. The analysis draws from policy documents produced by ministries, agencies, and art organizations, as well as documents related to COVID-19 support and post-pandemic events. We examine these manifestations through four recent “events” in cultural life and policy: (i) the emergence of creative economy discourses and practices since the early 2000s, (ii) the rise of self-employment and entrepreneurship, (iii) the strategicization of institutional policies and the weakening of their autonomy, and (iv) the enterprise-focused crisis support and post-pandemic actions. This transformation has not only economized cultural policies but also revitalized cultural politics, injecting new vitality into the somewhat stagnant Finnish cultural policy.

Keywordscreative economyentrepreneurshipinstitutionalismcultural policycultural services

Free keywordscreative economy; entrepreneurship; economization; discursive institutionalism; Finland; politization

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2023

Preliminary JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-03-04 at 21:56