A1 Journal article (refereed)
Effect of high temperature thermal treatment on the electrochemical performance of natural flake graphite (2024)

Lähde, A., Välikangas, J., Meščeriakovas, A., Karhunen, T., Meščeriakovė, S.-M., Sippula, O., Leinonen, S., Lassi, U., & Jokiniemi, J. (2024). Effect of high temperature thermal treatment on the electrochemical performance of natural flake graphite. Journal of Materials Research, 39(6), 944-954. https://doi.org/10.1557/s43578-024-01282-z

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsLähde, Anna; Välikangas, Juho; Meščeriakovas, Arūnas; Karhunen, Tommi; Meščeriakovė, Sara-Maaria; Sippula, Olli; Leinonen, Seppo; Lassi, Ulla; Jokiniemi, Jorma

Journal or seriesJournal of Materials Research



Publication year2024

Publication date25/01/2024


Issue number6

Pages range944-954


Publication countryGermany

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/93246


Natural graphite is currently considered as a critical raw material in EU. The demand for graphite is still increasing as it is commonly used in the anodes of the Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The total graphite content for energy storage applications such as LIBs should be more than 99.95%. Several purification processes for natural graphite exist but the requirement of high purity is challenging. Here we present the high temperature thermal treatment for natural graphite ores. Thermal treatment at 2400 °C for 15 min can produce battery-grade graphite with high purity and crystallinity needed for the optimum performance of the battery cells. In addition, the crystallinity and crystalline structure of graphite was improved during the treatment. The electrochemical studies of thermally treated graphite powders showed increased electrochemical performance compared to the untreated graphite samples. The improved performance was attributed to the increased purity and crystallinity of the thermally treated powders.

Keywordsgraphiteheat treatmentperformance (capacity)lithium-ion batteries

Free keywordsthermal purification; natural graphite; flake graphite; graphitization; battery grade graphite; li-ion batteries

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2024

Preliminary JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-13-05 at 18:05