B1 Non-refereed journal articles
NOT PARTS, BUT HOLISTIC TOTALITY : Comment on Streib’s “xenosophia” (2024)

Kallio, E. K. (2024). NOT PARTS, BUT HOLISTIC TOTALITY : Comment on Streib’s “xenosophia”. Possibility Studies and Society, Early online. https://doi.org/10.1177/27538699241241556

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKallio, Eeva K.

Journal or seriesPossibility Studies and Society


Publication year2024

Publication date28/03/2024

VolumeEarly online

PublisherSAGE Publications

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/94253


Recent research shows that there seems to be some preliminary agreement of the definition of wisdom. Two main strands of wisdom research can be identified. On the one hand, it is suggested that wisdom is attained through life experience and self-reflection as a deep self-understanding. On the other hand, multi-perspective openness, flexibility, and orientation toward others are signs of wisdom. Thus, both external and internal realms of the mind are included in the definitions. Streib (2023) emphasizes the latter, as perspective-taking, intellectual humility, moral concern for others are the characteristics of wisdom, and he calls it “xenosophia.” I argue that it is impossible to define wisdom in this way alone, since psychological self-understanding is necessarily required. If there is no inner human change, there can be no outer social change. Both dimensions are necessary in a holistic understanding of wisdom.


Free keywordsgeneral wisdom; holism; personal wisdom; psychological wisdom research

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Last updated on 2024-10-04 at 09:50