A1 Journal article (refereed)
Energy-momentum tensor of the dilute ð3+1ÞD glasma (2024)

Ipp, A., Leuthner, M., Müller, D. I., Schlichting, S., Schmidt, K., & Singh, P. (2024). Energy-momentum tensor of the dilute ð3+1ÞD glasma. Physical Review D, 109(9), Article 094040. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.109.094040

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsIpp, Andreas; Leuthner, Markus; Müller, David I.; Schlichting, Sören; Schmidt, Kayran; Singh, Pragya

Journal or seriesPhysical Review D



Publication year2024

Publication date24/05/2024


Issue number9

Article number094040

PublisherAmerican Physical Society (APS)

Publication countryUnited States

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/95319

Web address of parallel published publication (pre-print)https://arxiv.org/abs/2401.10320


We present a succinct formulation of the energy-momentum tensor of the glasma characterizing the initial color fields in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the color glass condensate effective theory. We derive concise expressions for the (3+1)⁢D dynamical evolution of symmetric nuclear collisions in the weak field approximation employing a generalized McLerran-Venugopalan model with nontrivial longitudinal correlations. Utilizing Monte Carlo integration, we calculate in unprecedented detail non-trivial rapidity profiles of early time observables at RHIC and LHC energies, including transverse energy densities and eccentricities. For our setup with broken boost invariance, we carefully discuss the placement of the origin of the Milne frame and interpret the components of the energy-momentum tensor. We find longitudinal flow that deviates from standard Bjorken flow in the (3+1)⁢D case and provide a geometric interpretation of this effect. Furthermore, we observe a universal shape in the flanks of the rapidity profiles regardless of collision energy and predict that limiting fragmentation should also hold at LHC energies.

Keywordsgluonsparticle physicsnuclear physics

Free keywordsNon-Abelian gauge theories; Relativistic heavy-ion collisions; Strong interaction; Gluons; Differential equations

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Preliminary JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-29-05 at 13:16