A1 Journal article (refereed)
Juniorigolfareiden motivaatio ja viihtyminen golfharrastuksessa ja koululiikunnassa (2012)
Junior golfers' motivation and enjoyment in golf and physical education

Nieminen, R., & Nieminen, P. (2012). Juniorigolfareiden motivaatio ja viihtyminen golfharrastuksessa ja koululiikunnassa. Liikunta & Tiede, 40(6), 36-44. https://www.lts.fi/media/lts_vertaisarvioidut_tutkimusartikkelit/2012/lt612_tutkimusartikkelit_nieminen_lowres.pdf

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsNieminen, Reetu; Nieminen, Pipsa

Journal or seriesLiikunta & Tiede


Publication year2012


Issue number6

Pages range36-44

PublisherLiikuntatieteellinen Seura

Publication countryFinland

Publication languageFinnish

Persistent website addresshttps://www.lts.fi/media/lts_vertaisarvioidut_tutkimusartikkelit/2012/lt612_tutkimusartikkelit_nieminen_lowres.pdf

Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/85964


The aim of this study was to investigate and compare juniorgolfers’ motivation and enjoyment in golf and in school physical education (PE). In addition the combinations of motivational factors which best predicted enjoyment in golf and in PE were analyzed. The participants were 158, 12–18 -year old juniorgolfers representing 31 golf clubs in different parts of Finland. The data were collected by using a questionnaire in which juniorgolfers’ perceived autonomy, social relatedness, physical competence, task involving climate and ego involving climate were measured. Except for physical competence, which was measured in general, the other motivational factors in golf and PE were investigated by using parallel measurements. The internal consistencies of the scales were good. The level of junior golfers’ motivation in golf was much higher than in physical education even though the motivation in PE was also relative high for all factors except perceived autonomy. However autonomy seems to be an important factor in PE because it was strongly related to all other motivational factors and to enjoyment. The boys perceived the motivational climate in golf and PE to be higher in ego involvement than did the girls. The girls perceived social relatedness higher in PE than did the boys. Junior golfers enjoyed PE and especially enjoyed golf. Regression analyses showed that task involving climate and social relatedness emerged as the best predictors of enjoyment both in golf and in PE. In addition, perceived competence and autonomy predicted enjoyment in PE. The results stress the importance for PE teachers and coaches to promote task-involving climates, social relatedness, competency and autonomy, especially to enhance adolescents’ enjoyment in PE. The correlations between motivational factors in golf and in PE challenge further research to investigate the ways in which these factors interact between PE and a leisure-time sport.

Keywordsyoung peoplephysical education (school subject)motivation (mental objects)self-efficacyautonomy (societal properties)leisure activitiesphysical hobbiesgolfphysical education (upbringing)

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2012

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2023-10-05 at 09:01