A1 Journal article (refereed)
Factor Structure and Longitudinal Factorial Validity of the Core Self-Evaluation Scale : Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (2018)

Mäkikangas, A., Kinnunen, U., Mauno, S., & Selenko, E. (2018). Factor Structure and Longitudinal Factorial Validity of the Core Self-Evaluation Scale : Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 34(6), 444-449. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000357

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Mäkikangas, Anne; Kinnunen, Ulla; Mauno, Saija; Selenko, Eva

Journal or series: European Journal of Psychological Assessment

ISSN: 1015-5759

eISSN: 2151-2426

Publication year: 2018

Volume: 34

Issue number: 6

Pages range: 444-449

Publisher: Hogrefe Publishing; European Association of Psychological Assessment

Place of Publication: Boston

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000357

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Additional information: Brief report.


The personality high-order concept of core self-evaluations (CSE), which refers to a basic evaluation of one’s worth, capability, and effectiveness, has attracted a lot of research interest. Yet little is known about the construct validity of the core self-evaluation scale (CSES) while information on its longitudinal factorial validity is wholly lacking. This study investigated the factor structure of the CSES using both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis implemented in Mplus program. In addition, the factor loading invariance over time was investigated using exploratory structural equation modeling. Longitudinal data with three follow-ups over 2 years, gathered among university employees (n = 926 (T3)–2,137 (T1)), were used. The results showed that a two-factor solution comprising the sub-dimensions Internal and External self-evaluations fitted to the data better than the alternative factor models. The two-factor solution was also invariant across the three measurements. It is concluded that the CSES could be used as a two-dimensional instead of a one-dimensional scale. Splitting the scale into the two sub-dimensions of Internal and External self-evaluations revealed that the concept has a finer-grained structure than hitherto thought.

Keywords: self-evaluation; validity; longitudinal research; universities; employees

Free keywords: core self-evaluations; factorial validity; longitudinal study; exploratory structural equation modeling

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Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2018

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-03-10 at 10:14