A1 Journal article (refereed)
Trait self-control and self-discipline : Structure, validity, and invariance across national groups (2021)

Hagger, M., Zhang, C.-Q., Kangro, E.-M., Ries, F., Wang, J. C. K., Heritage, B., & Chan, D. K. C. (2021). Trait self-control and self-discipline : Structure, validity, and invariance across national groups. Current Psychology, 40(3), 1015-1030. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0021-6

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Hagger, Martin; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Kangro, Eva-Maria; Ries, Francis; Wang, John C. K.; Heritage, Brody; Chan, Derwin K. C.

Journal or series: Current Psychology

ISSN: 1046-1310

eISSN: 1936-4733

Publication year: 2021

Volume: 40

Issue number: 3

Pages range: 1015-1030

Publisher: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers University

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0021-6

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/74392

Web address of parallel published publication (pre-print): https://psyarxiv.com/9egbx/


The aim of the present study was to test the validity of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney, Baumeister and Boone 2004) including its dimensional structure based on competing one- and two-factor models, discriminant validity from the conceptually-related self-discipline construct, invariance across multiple samples from different national groups, and predictive validity with respect to health-related behaviors. Samples of undergraduate students (total N = 1282) from four national groups completed the brief self-control scale, the self-discipline scale from the NEO-PI-R, and self-report measures of binge drinking, exercise, and healthy eating. Confirmatory factor analytic models supported a two-factor structure of self-control encompassing restraint and non-impulsivity components. The model exhibited good fit in all samples and invariance of factor loadings in multi-sample analysis. The restraint and non-impulsivity components exhibited discriminant validity and were also distinct from self-discipline. Structural equation models revealed that non-impulsivity predicted binge drinking in three of the samples, and restraint predicted exercise in two samples, with no role for self-discipline. Results point to a multi-dimensional structure for trait self-control consistent with previous theory separating impulsive- and control-related components.

Keywords: self-regulation (adjustment); restrictions; impulsivity; self-control

Free keywords: self-discipline; self-regulation; restraint

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2021-20-09 at 15:58