A1 Journal article (refereed)
Seksuaalivähemmistöjen häirintä joukkueessa tai liikuntaryhmässä : henkisen pahoinvoinnin näkökulma (2018)
Harassment of sexual minorities in a team or in a group fitness class : a psychological ill-being perspective

Kokkonen, M. (2018). Seksuaalivähemmistöjen häirintä joukkueessa tai liikuntaryhmässä : henkisen pahoinvoinnin näkökulma. Liikunta ja tiede, 55(6), 96-102. https://www.lts.fi/media/lts_vertaisarvioidut_tutkimusartikkelit/2018/lt_6-18_tutkimusartikkelit_96-102_lowres.pdf

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsKokkonen, Marja

Journal or seriesLiikunta ja tiede


Publication year2018


Issue number6

Pages range96-102

PublisherLiikuntatieteellinen seura

Publication countryFinland

Publication languageFinnish

Persistent website addresshttps://www.lts.fi/media/lts_vertaisarvioidut_tutkimusartikkelit/2018/lt_6-18_tutkimusartikkelit_96-102_lowres.pdf

Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/62461


This study surveyed 155 sexual minority sport participants in Finland in order to examine: 1) various forms of gender-based and sexual harassment in a team or in a group fitness class in relation to associated psychological ill-being, indexed by stress due to discrimination, psychosomatic symptoms, and depression; and 2) the differences in harassment in a team or in a group fitness class according to gender and sexual orientation. Self-reported data from 93 females and 62 males was collected anonymously through an online survey and then analyzed using Spearman rank-order correlations, coefficients of determination,and cross tabulation with Chi Square testing. In both genders, nonverbal harassment (i.e. dismissive or contemptuous looks, sexually charged gestures, facial expressions, and sounds)and verbal harassment (i.e. sexual insults and undermining) were statistically significantly linked to stress; in addition, nonverbal harassment was related to psychosomatic symptoms and undermining was associated with depression. Furthermore, nonverbal harassment and sexual insults were linked to depression in males. Physical harassment was associated with psychosomatic symptoms only in those identifying as female. In a team or in a group fitness class, males experienced nonverbal and physical harassment more often than females. Gays were verbally harassed more often than people of any other sexual orientation. In contrast, most dominantly heterosexual participants were verbally harassed less frequently than any other sexual orientation groups. The study concluded, firstly, that, for sexual minority sport participants in Finland, being male and gay is a risk factor for gender-based and sexual harassment in team sport and group fitness classes. Secondly, harassment is more strongly linked to psychological ill-being in males than in females.

Keywordsteam sportsphysical hobbiessexual minoritiesdiscriminationunderestimationsexual harassmentstress (biological phenomena)depression (mental disorders)mental ill-healthbecoming offendedpsychosomatics

Free keywordsteam sport; gender minorities; sexual harassment; discrimination; psychosomatic symptoms; stress; depression

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2018

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2023-27-02 at 10:48