A1 Journal article (refereed)
Rural Livelihood Diversification : A Solution for Poverty in the Post‐Soviet Rural Baltic States? (2019)

Žakevičiūtė, R. (2019). Rural Livelihood Diversification : A Solution for Poverty in the Post‐Soviet Rural Baltic States?. Sociologia Ruralis, 59(3), 560-580. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12259

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Žakevičiūtė, Rasa

Journal or series: Sociologia Ruralis

ISSN: 0038-0199

eISSN: 1467-9523

Publication year: 2019

Volume: 59

Issue number: 3

Pages range: 560-580

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell; European Society for Rural Sociology

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12259

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/66720


This article analyses rural livelihood diversification through a longitudinal follow‐up survey, that targets former collective farm workers in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It argues, that between 1995 and 2010 the former collective farm workers employed three distinct livelihood diversification strategies in order to create their living. A wage‐based livelihood diversification strategy, which does not include any agricultural practices, was more common among the better‐off households. A farm‐based livelihood diversification strategy, which does not rely on salaries, was more often employed by the poor. A mixed strategy, that combines both wage income and farm activities, was used by both better‐off (above the poverty line) and poor households (below the poverty line). The paper also finds that livelihood diversification and poverty among the researched households have country specific patterns, which coincide with the general rural development in Baltic states.

Keywords: countryside; rural sociology; rural livelihoods; diversification; structural change; poverty; follow-up study

Free keywords: rural livelihood diversification; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2019

JUFO rating: 2

Last updated on 2021-10-06 at 11:33