A1 Journal article (refereed)
Evolutionary Hysteresis and Ratchets in the Evolution of Periodical Cicadas (2019)

Toivonen, J., & Fromhage, L. (2019). Evolutionary Hysteresis and Ratchets in the Evolution of Periodical Cicadas. American Naturalist, 194(1), 38-46. https://doi.org/10.1086/703563

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Toivonen, Jaakko; Fromhage, Lutz

Journal or series: American Naturalist

ISSN: 0003-0147

eISSN: 1537-5323

Publication year: 2019

Volume: 194

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 38-46

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/703563

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/66233


It has been previously hypothesized that the perfectly synchronized mass emergence of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) evolved as a result of a switch from size-based to age-based emergence. In the former case, cicada nymphs emerge immediately (at the first opportunity) on reaching maturity, whereas in the latter case, nymphs wait in order to emerge at a specific age. Here we use an individual-based model to simulate the cicada life cycle and to study the evolution of periodicity. We find that if age-based emergence evolves in a constant abiotic environment, it typically results in a population that is protoperiodic, and synchronous emergence of the whole population is not achieved. However, perfect periodicity and synchronous emergence can be attained, if the abiotic environment changes back and forth between favorable and unfavorable conditions (hysteresis). Furthermore, once age-based emergence evolves, generally it can only be invaded by other age-based emergence strategies with longer cycle lengths (evolutionary ratchet). Together, these mechanisms promote the evolution of long periodic life cycles and synchronous emergence in the Magicicada. We discuss how our results connect to previous theories and recent phylogenetic studies on Magicicada evolution.

Keywords: chronobiology; evolution; cicadas

Free keywords: periodicity; synchronous life cycle; individual-based simulation; Magicicada; temporally varying environments

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Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2019

JUFO rating: 3

Last updated on 2021-10-06 at 17:39