A1 Journal article (refereed)
Athletes' Self Perceptions of Optimal States in Karate : An Application of the IZOF Model (2004)


Montse C. Ruiz; Yuri L. Hanin (2004). Athletes' Self Perceptions of Optimal States in Karate : An Application of the IZOF Model. Revista de Psicologia del Deporte, 13 (2), 229-244. https://www.rpd-online.com/article/view/203/203


JYU authors or editors


Publication details

All authors or editors: Montse C. Ruiz; Yuri L. Hanin

Journal or series: Revista de Psicologia del Deporte

ISSN: 1132-239X

eISSN: 1988-5636

Publication year: 2004

Volume: 13

Issue number: 2

Pages range: 229-244

Publisher: Universitat de les Illes Balears

Publication country: Spain

Publication language: English

Persistent website address: https://www.rpd-online.com/article/view/203/203

Open Access: Publication published in an open access channel

Publication channel open access:

Publication open access:


Abstract

This study examined self-perceptions of optimal states in 63 high-level Spanish karate athletes. Open-ended
questions were used to examine athletes’ situational experiences (states), relatively stable emotional patterns and metaexperiences. As expected, optimal states were characterized by pleasant (confidence, calmness) and unpleasant (anxiety, anger) emotions. Athletes’ self-descriptions reflected all seven form-components of a psycho-biosocial state with affective and cognitive modalities being the most salient components of their optimal states. Athletes perceived their optimal states as temporary and dynamic and actively used different strategies to produce and maintain these states. The results suggest that individualized interventions should not be limited to the reduction of anxiety. Directions for future research and practical implications are suggested.


Free keywords: athletes; emotions, meta-experience; self perception; optimal state; IZOF model; karate


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Last updated on 2019-05-08 at 11:09