A1 Journal article (refereed)
On the Difference Between Necessary and Unnecessary Glances Away From the Forward Roadway : An Occlusion Study on the Motorway (2020)


Kircher, K., Kujala, T., & Ahlström, C. (2020). On the Difference Between Necessary and Unnecessary Glances Away From the Forward Roadway : An Occlusion Study on the Motorway. Human Factors, 62(7), 1117-1131. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720819866946


JYU authors or editors


Publication details

All authors or editors: Kircher, Katja; Kujala, Tuomo; Ahlström, Christer

Journal or series: Human Factors

ISSN: 0018-7208

eISSN: 1547-8181

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 62

Issue number: 7

Pages range: 1117-1131

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc.

Publication country: United States

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720819866946

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/66718


Abstract

Objective:
The present study strove to distinguish traffic-related glances away from the forward roadway from non-traffic-related glances while assessing the minimum amount of visual information intake necessary for safe driving in particular scenarios.

Background:
Published gaze-based distraction detection algorithms and guidelines for distraction prevention essentially measure the time spent looking away from the forward roadway, without incorporating situation-based attentional requirements. Incorporating situation-based attentional requirements would entail an approach that not only considers the time spent looking elsewhere but also checks whether all necessary information has been sampled.

Method:
We assess the visual sampling requirements for the forward view based on 25 experienced drivers’ self-paced visual occlusion in real motorway traffic, dependent on a combination of situational factors, and compare these with their corresponding glance behavior in baseline driving.

Results:
Occlusion durations were on average 3 times longer than glances away from the forward roadway, and they varied substantially depending on particular maneuvers and on the proximity of other traffic, showing that interactions with nearby traffic increase perceived uncertainty. The frequency of glances away from the forward roadway was relatively stable across proximity levels and maneuvers, being very similar to what has been found in naturalistic driving.

Conclusion:
Glances away from the forward roadway proved qualitatively different from occlusions in both their duration and when they occur. Our findings indicate that glancing away from the forward roadway for driving purposes is not the same as glancing away for other purposes, and that neither is necessarily equivalent to distraction.


Keywords: traffic behaviour; motor vehicle drivers; attention; eye tracking

Free keywords: driver behavior; attention; distraction; occlusion; glance behavior


Contributing organizations


Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 2


Last updated on 2021-20-09 at 16:31