A4 Article in conference proceedings
Online expression and spending on personal cybersecurity (2019)

Rauhala, J., Tyrväinen, P., & Zaidenberg, N. (2019). Online expression and spending on personal cybersecurity. In T. Cruz, & P. Simoes (Eds.), ECCWS 2019 : Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (pp. 387-393). Academic Conferences International. Proceedings of the European conference on information warfare and security.

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Rauhala, Juhani; Tyrväinen, Pasi; Zaidenberg, Nezer

Parent publication: ECCWS 2019 : Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security

Parent publication editors: Cruz, Tiago; Simoes, Paulo

Place and date of conference: Coimbra, Portugal, 4.-5.6.2019

ISBN: 978-1-912764-28-0

Journal or series: Proceedings of the European conference on information warfare and security

ISSN: 2048-8602

eISSN: 2048-8610

Publication year: 2019

Pages range: 387-393

Number of pages in the book: 884

Publisher: Academic Conferences International

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/67104


The Internet is used increasingly as a platform both for free expression and e-commerce. Internet users have a variety of attitudes towards the security and privacy risks involved with using the Internet; and distinct concerns and behaviors with regard to expressing themselves online. Users may have controversial viewpoints that they may express online in various ways. Controversial viewpoints or artwork by their nature may not be as well received as positive or polite expressions. In the online environment, users with controversial viewpoints may be reluctant to express the viewpoints due to concern about possible consequences resulting from the expressions. Consequences may be imposed by individuals, groups, organizations, businesses, or nation-states. Examples of such consequences include firings, removal of forum posting privileges (“banning”), violent attacks, online stalking, and doxing. Users may also have different attitudes towards personal spending of money for cybersecurity products and services. Factors such as concern about the risks associated with free expression online may impact their attitudes towards spending for personal cybersecurity. We perform a factor analysis on survey data. Our goal is to establish variables for expression reluctance, and attitude towards personal cybersecurity purchasing. The positive attitude toward spending on personal cybersecurity, as a factor, includes reported activity of purchasing cybersecurity products or services, and an overall generally positive attitude toward the purchasing of such products or services. We propose a research model that enables an analysis of the relationship between the reluctance to make controversial expressions online and a positive attitude toward spending money on personal cybersecurity products and services. We perform a correlation analysis between the factors. Results indicate that there is a correlation between users’ reluctance to express controversial messages online, and a positive attitude towards spending money on personal cybersecurity. Future work will include additional analyses, including the effects of various demographic factors.

Keywords: online services; online communities; risks; privacy; consumer behaviour

Free keywords: online expression reluctance, personal cybersecurity spending, privacy concerns, online spending, risk avoidance

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2019

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-10-01 at 13:05