A1 Journal article (refereed)
Biomechanical factors affecting energy cost during running utilising different slopes (2020)

Seki, K., Kyröläinen, H., Sugimoto, K., & Enomoto, Y. (2020). Biomechanical factors affecting energy cost during running utilising different slopes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(1), 6-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1676527

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Seki, Keitaro; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Sugimoto, Kanami; Enomoto, Yasushi

Journal or series: Journal of Sports Sciences

ISSN: 0264-0414

eISSN: 1466-447X

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 38

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 6-12

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1676527

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/66540


This study aimed to examine the characteristics of electromyography (EMG) and kinematics of the supporting leg affecting energy cost while running at incline, level, and decline slopes. Twelve male Japanese middle- and long-distance runners volunteered for this study. The subjects were asked to run at 13.5 km·h−1 on a treadmill under three slope conditions. Sagittal plane kinematics and the EMG of the lower limb muscles, respiratory gases were recorded. Energy cost differed significantly between slopes, being the lowest in decline slope and the greatest in incline slope. Integrated EMG (iEMG) of leg extensor muscles was greater in the incline slope than in the decline slope, and iEMG of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles correlated positively with energy cost. The knee and ankle joint kinematics were associated with energy cost during running. In incline slope, the knee and ankle joints were more extended (plantarflexed) to lift the body. These movements may disturb the coordination between the ankle and knee joints. The gastrocnemius muscle would do greater mechanical work to plantarflex the ankle joint rather than transfer mechanical energy as well as greater mechanical work of mono-articular muscles. These muscular activities would increase energy cost.

Keywords: running; kinematics; biomechanics; energy consumption (metabolism); electromyography

Free keywords: running economy; kinematics; EMG; inclination

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 15:54