A1 Journal article (refereed)
Development of a Food-Based Diet Quality Score from a Short FFQ and Associations with Obesity Measures, Eating Styles and Nutrient Intakes in Finnish Twins (2019)

Masip, G., Keski-Rahkonen, A., Pietiläinen, K. H., Kujala, U. M., Rottensteiner, M., Väisänen, K., Kaprio, J., & Bogl, L. H. (2019). Development of a Food-Based Diet Quality Score from a Short FFQ and Associations with Obesity Measures, Eating Styles and Nutrient Intakes in Finnish Twins. Nutrients, 11(11), Article 2561. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112561

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Masip, Guiomar; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kujala, Urho M.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Väisänen, Karoliina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H.

Journal or series: Nutrients

eISSN: 2072-6643

Publication year: 2019

Volume: 11

Issue number: 11

Article number: 2561

Publisher: MDPI

Publication country: Switzerland

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112561

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/66104

Additional information: This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index.


We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0–12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (β = −0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p < 0.001), waist circumference (β = −0.34, p < 0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p < 0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction.

Keywords: obesity; overweight; eating; food habits; diets; nutrients (animals and humans); nutritional value; twin research

Free keywords: obesity; eating behaviors; diet quality score; nutrient intake; twins; short FFQ; BMI; waist

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2019

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2023-10-01 at 16:02