G5 Doctoral dissertation (article)
Inkeriläisten paluumuutto : suomalaisuutta, kielitaitoa ja kielitutkintoa (2019)

Martikainen, M. (2019). Inkeriläisten paluumuutto : suomalaisuutta, kielitaitoa ja kielitutkintoa [Doctoral dissertation]. Jyväskylän yliopisto. JYU dissertations, 143. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-7872-3

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Martikainen, Minna

eISBN: 978-951-39-7872-3

Journal or series: JYU dissertations

eISSN: 2489-9003

Publication year: 2019

Number in series: 143

Number of pages in the book: 1 verkkoaineisto (76 sivua, 97 sivua useina numerointijaksoina) :

Publisher: Jyväskylän yliopisto

Place of Publication: Jyväskylä

Publication country: Finland

Publication language: Finnish

Persistent website address: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-39-7872-3

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Open Access channel


This is a doctoral research on Ingrians migration to Finland, especially on impact of a tailor-made language exam. Ingrians’ language exam was designed to test if the residence permit applicant is at A2 level in Finnish. The exam was launched in 2003. The aim of this study is to analyze the goals and impact of the language exam on teaching and studying Finnish before migrating to Finland. Furthermore this study aims at analyzing how Ingrians’ migration is assessed in media. The study consists of four articles and an introduction part. The data consists of media texts, mainly news and press releases in 1998–2003 and 2015–2017 (periods of start and final of the exam), parliament protocols, interviews with teachers and specialists and questionnaires students answered. The language exam is analyzed on the basis of what interest groups discuss about it. Sub-studies focus on different data, and also the analysis of the data changes during the study. Three sub-studies use discourse analysis, one content analysis. The quality of language exam is studied with quality framework (Bachman and Palmer 1996) with six features. One key finding of the study are different perspectives in the discussion preceding the launch of the language exam. Language exam was introduced as a tool for testing so called moral citizenship, willingness and motivation to learn Finnish language and ambition to cope in Finnish language. The data shows that Ingrian language learners have a positive attitude towards the language exam. They consider the language exam as a reliable way to test language skills, and preparing for the exam motivated them to study language intensively. They also presume they will continue it after passing the exam. They felt stress when the exam date was approaching, but the atmosphere in the classroom was good, not stressful. Hence washback of the language exam was mainly positive. In media texts during the final stages of the language exam in 2015–2017 Ingrians living in Finland are represented happy with their living conditions. Integration has been successful, language skills and identity help with integration to Finland. Researchers talking in media represent Ingrians’ integration in a more critical light: some Ingrians are living between two cultures, Finnish and Russian, their employment situation has not improved during their stay in Finland and language skills have improved just sparsely, which disturbs integration. The most important impact of the study was to examine Ingrians language exam in the period of time when it was used and people representing different interest groups were involved with it. Ingrians language exam is an example of a successful pedagogical innovation which was able to impact mostly positively people who have participated remigration process to Finland

Keywords: language examinations; Finnish language; evaluation; quality; language skills; Ingrians; returnees (immigrants)

Free keywords: Ingrians; Finnish language exam; quality criteria; language exam impact

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2019

Last updated on 2021-08-06 at 22:49