A1 Journal article (refereed)
Employment Status and Personal Income Before and After Onset of a Severe Mental Disorder : A Case-Control Study (2020)

Hakulinen, C., Elovainio, M., Arffman, M., Lumme, S., Suokas, K., Pirkola, S., Keskimäki, I., Manderbacka, K., & Böckerman, P. (2020). Employment Status and Personal Income Before and After Onset of a Severe Mental Disorder : A Case-Control Study. Psychiatric Services, 71(3), 250-255. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201900239

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsHakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Arffman, Martti; Lumme, Sonja; Suokas, Kimmo; Pirkola, Sami; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Böckerman, Petri

Journal or seriesPsychiatric Services



Publication year2020


Issue number3

Pages range250-255

PublisherAmerican Psychiatric Association

Publication countryUnited States

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessNot open

Publication channel open access

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/68019


Objective: Individuals with severe mental disorders have an impaired ability to work and are likely to receive income transfer payments as their main source of income. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon remains unclear. Using longitudinal population cohort register data, the authors conducted a case-control study to examine the levels of employment and personal income before and after a first hospitalization for a serious mental disorder.

Methods: All individuals (N=50,551) who had been hospitalized for schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychosis, or bipolar disorder in Finland between 1988 and 2015 were identified and matched with five randomly selected participants who were the same sex and who had the same birth year and month. Employment status and earnings, income transfer payments, and total income in euros were measured annually from 1988 to 2015.

Results: Individuals with serious mental disorders had notably low levels of employment before, and especially after, the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder. Their total income was mostly constituted of transfer payments, and this was especially true for those diagnosed as having schizophrenia. More than half of all individuals with a serious mental disorder did not have any employment earnings after they received the diagnosis.

Conclusions: The current study shows how most individuals in Finland depend solely on income transfer payments after an onset of a severe mental disorder.

Keywordsemploymentlabour statusearned incomelevel of incomeincome transfersmental disorderspsychosessocial psychiatry

Free keywordsemployment status; mental disorders; psychoses; social psychiatry; earnings; incomes; labour market

Contributing organizations

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2020

JUFO rating1

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 12:08