A1 Journal article (refereed)
Structural validity of the Finnish Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) using the Rasch model (2021)

Ponkilainen, V. T., Miettinen, M., Sandelin, H., Lindahl, J., Häkkinen, A. H., Toom, A., Tillgren, T., Ilves, O., Latvala, A. O., Ahonen, K., Sirola, T., Sampo, M., Väistö, O., & Repo, J. P. (2021). Structural validity of the Finnish Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) using the Rasch model. Foot and Ankle Surgery, 27(1), 93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2020.02.012

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Ponkilainen, Ville T.; Miettinen, Mikko; Sandelin, Henrik; Lindahl, Jan; Häkkinen, Arja H.; Toom, Alar; Tillgren, Tomi; Ilves, Outi; Latvala, Antti O.; Ahonen, Katri; et al.

Journal or series: Foot and Ankle Surgery

ISSN: 1268-7731

eISSN: 1460-9584

Publication year: 2021

Volume: 27

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 93-100

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2020.02.012

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:


The 16-item patient-reported Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) with subscales of pain, social interactions, and walking/standing has been claimed for strongest scientific evidence in measuring foot and ankle complaints. This study tests the validity of the Finnish MOXFQ for orthopaedic foot and ankle population using the Rasch analysis.

We translated the MOXFQ into Finnish and used that translation in our study. MOXFQ scores were obtained from 183 patients. Response category distribution, item fit, coverage, targeting, item dependency, ability to measure latent trait (unidimensionality), internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and person separation index (PSI) were analyzed.

Fifteen of the items had ordered response categories and/or sufficient fit statistics. The subscales provided coverage and targeting. Some residual correlation was noted. Removing one item in the pain subscale led to a unidimensional structure. Alphas and PSIs ranged between 0.68–0.90 and 0.67–0.92, respectively.

Despite some infractions of the Rasch model, the instrument functioned well. The subscales of the MOXFQ are meaningful for assessing patient-reported complaints and outcomes in orthopaedic foot and ankle population.

Keywords: legs; ankles; surgical treatment; treatment outcomes; psychometrics; measuring instruments (indicators); validation; Rasch model

Free keywords: foot; ankle; patient-reported; MOXFQ; PROM; psychometrics; validation; surgery; Rasch

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

Preliminary JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2022-15-06 at 14:32