A1 Journal article (refereed)
Screening for Slow Reading Acquisition in Norway and Finland : a Quest for Context Specific Predictors (2021)

Solheim, O. J., Torppa, M., Uppstad, P. H., & Lerkkanen, M.-K. (2021). Screening for Slow Reading Acquisition in Norway and Finland : a Quest for Context Specific Predictors. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 65(4), 584-600. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2020.1739130

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsSolheim, Oddny Judith; Torppa, Minna; Uppstad, Per Henning; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

Journal or seriesScandinavian Journal of Educational Research



Publication year2021


Issue number4

Pages range584-600

PublisherTaylor & Francis

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/68235


Early identification of children at risk of developing reading difficulties is crucial for effective interventions. While orthographies and educational contexts differ, predictors included in early at-risk screening tend to remain rather homogeneous across countries. In this study, we compared longitudinal prediction patterns of being among the 20 percent lowest performing in reading fluency by the end of Grade 1 in Norway (N = 918) and Finland (N =378). The two countries differ in orthographic consistency (semi-transparent versus transparent), age at school entry and pre-primary education. Letter knowledge, phoneme isolation and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were unique predictors in the Norwegian sample. Predictors in the Finnish sample were gender, phoneme blending, RAN, and reading status. The predictive model identified significantly more Finnish than Norwegian poor readers (46.2% versus 27.9%). The results suggest national screening instruments that are sensitive to educational context and orthography.

Keywordslanguage learninglearning difficultiesreading disordersforecastscomparative researchorthography

Free keywordsreading difficulties; prediction; at-risk students; cross-linguistic comparison

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating2

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 22:04