A1 Journal article (refereed)
Determinants of Prescription Opioid Use : Population‐Based Evidence from Finland (2021)

Böckerman, P., Haapanen, M., Hakulinen, C., Karhunen, H., & Maczulskij, T. (2021). Determinants of Prescription Opioid Use : Population‐Based Evidence from Finland. Addiction, 116(1), 170-175. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15071

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Böckerman, Petri; Haapanen, Mika; Hakulinen, Christian; Karhunen, Hannu; Maczulskij, Terhi

Journal or series: Addiction

ISSN: 0965-2140

eISSN: 1360-0443

Publication year: 2021

Volume: 116

Issue number: 1

Pages range: 170-175

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15071

Publication open access: Openly available

Publication channel open access: Partially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/73623


Background and aims
Previous studies have shown that prescription opioid use is more common in the socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in the US. This study examined the area and individual‐level determinants of prescription opioid use in Finland during the period 1995‐2016.

Logistic regression analysis using nationwide data on filled opioid‐related prescriptions dispensed at Finnish pharmacies and covered by the National Health Insurance. Opioid consumption was linked, using personal identification codes, to population‐based data maintained by Statistics Finland, which records individual background and area‐level characteristics.

Setting and participants
Working‐age population aged between 15 and 64 years in Finland during the periods 1995‐2007 (n = 4 315 409) and 2009‐2016 (n = 4 116 992).

Annual prescription opioid use was measured using defined daily doses (DDD) and whether individuals used opioids during a year.

Prescription opioid use increased in Finland from 1995 to 2016 (from less than 1% to 7%), but the increase was explained by the change in the treatment of codeine‐based opioids in the National Health Insurance. The area‐level unemployment rate was positively correlated with the share of opioid users at the municipal level (r = 0.36; p < 0.001). In comparison with being employed, being outside the labour force was associated with increased opioid use in 1995‐2007 (OR 2.22, 95% CI 2.10‐2.36) and non‐codeine opioid use in 2009‐2016 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 2.06‐2.27), but not with codeine opioid use in 2009‐2016.

Prescription opioid use in Finland appears to be more common among low‐socioeconomic status individuals, similar to the US and the UK.

Keywords: opioids; use; prescriptions; socioeconomic factors; population research

Free keywords: opioids; opioid use; codeine; prescription drugs; prevalence; population‐based; socioeconomic status; Finland

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Related projects

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2021

JUFO rating: 3

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 14:22