A1 Journal article (refereed)
Validation of the swimming competence questionnaire for children (2020)

Chan, D. K. C., Lee, A. S. Y., Macfarlane, D. J., Hagger, M. S., & Hamilton, K. (2020). Validation of the swimming competence questionnaire for children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(14), 1666-1673. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1754724

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Chan, Derwin K. C.; Lee, Alfred Sing Yeung; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Hagger, Martin S.; Hamilton, Kyra

Journal or series: Journal of Sports Sciences

ISSN: 0264-0414

eISSN: 1466-447X

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 38

Issue number: 14

Pages range: 1666-1673

Publisher: Routledge

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1754724

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/71021


Two studies were employed to test the reliability and validity of the Swimming Competence Questionnaire (SCQ) among primary school children. Study 1 was a cross-sectional survey in 4959 primary school children. Study 2 was a pre-post-test quasi-experiment among 1609 primary school children who underwent a 20-lesson learn-to-swim programme. In Study 1, exploratory structural equation modelling revealed excellent goodness-of-fit and scale reliability for a two-factor model comprising distance and skill factors, which supported the construct and convergent validity. SCQ scores were significantly and positively correlated with swimming outcomes (i.e., self-efficacy, intention, swimming frequency), which supported SCQ’s concurrent and criterion validity. Average variance extracted for the SCQ factors exceeded cut-off criteria supporting discriminant validity. In Study 2, pre-test SCQ scores correlated significantly and positively with the SCQ scores, self-efficacy, intention, and swimming frequency at post-test, which supported SCQ’s test-retest reliability and predictive validity. Positive intraclass correlation between SCQ scores and coach ratings at post-test provided evidence for SCQ’s inter-rater reliability. SCQ scores significantly improved at post-test, which supported SCQ’s ecological validity. In conclusion, findings indicate that the SCQ is a valid and reliable measure to assess primary school children’s swimming competence, in terms of swimming distance and basic water survival skills.

Keywords: children (age groups); motor skills (sports); swimming skills; swimming instruction; self-efficacy; psychometrics; questionnaire survey; validation

Free keywords: psychometric tool; self-efficacy; sport competence; water safety; validity

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 1

Last updated on 2021-07-07 at 21:31