B2 Book section
Professional expertise, integrative thinking, wisdom, and phronesis (2020)

Tynjälä, P., Heikkinen, H. L. T., & Kallio, E. K. (2020). Professional expertise, integrative thinking, wisdom, and phronesis. In E. Kallio (Ed.), Development of adult thinking : Interdisciplinary perspectives on cognitive development and adult learning (pp. 156-174). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315187464-10

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Tynjälä, Päivi; Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Kallio, Eeva K.

Parent publication: Development of adult thinking : Interdisciplinary perspectives on cognitive development and adult learning

Parent publication editors: Kallio, Eeva

ISBN: 978-1-138-73350-3

eISBN: 978-1-315-18746-4

Publication year: 2020

Pages range: 156-174

Number of pages in the book: 245

Publisher: Routledge

Place of Publication: Abingdon, Oxon

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315187464-10

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/68846


This chapter examines adult thinking from the perspective of professional expertise and phronēsis, that is, practical wisdom. It first describes differences between experts and novices, and presents three conceptualisations of the development of expertise. This is followed by an analysis of the form of adult thinking referred to as integrative thinking, and phronēsis. The relationship of these two with expertise is examined. The analysis shows that professional expertise requires holistic thinking involving the ability to integrate or conciliate various and even conflicting perspectives in order to find new solutions to problems. Furthermore, the role of emotions and ethical reflection is emphasised. All this leads to the examination of practical wisdom, phronēsis, in particular. As a conclusion, a model of the nature of wisdom in professional expertise is presented, and it is suggested that the development of expertise and wisdom in the fast changing and complex world requires pedagogical approaches that support the integration and fusion of different forms of knowledge, various perspectives, and socially responsible ethical action and interaction in problem solving situations.

Keywords: adults; thinking; cognition; cognitive development; learning; adult pedagogy; developmental psychology; professional development; professionalisation; expertise; professionalism

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 14:09