A1 Journal article (refereed)
Emotions of music listening in Finland and in India : Comparison of an individualistic and a collectivistic culture (2021)

Saarikallio, S., Alluri, V., Maksimainen, J., & Toiviainen, P. (2021). Emotions of music listening in Finland and in India : Comparison of an individualistic and a collectivistic culture. Psychology of Music, 49(4), 989-1005. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735620917730

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editorsSaarikallio, Suvi; Alluri, Vinoo; Maksimainen, Johanna; Toiviainen, Petri

Journal or seriesPsychology of Music



Publication year2021


Issue number4

Pages range989-1005

PublisherSage Publications

Publication countryUnited Kingdom

Publication languageEnglish


Publication open accessOpenly available

Publication channel open accessPartially open access channel

Publication is parallel published (JYX)https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/72868


Music is appreciated for emotional reasons across cultures, but knowledge on the cross-cultural similarities and differences of music-evoked emotions is still sparse. The current study compared music-evoked emotions in Finland and in India, contextualizing them within the perceived psychological functionality of music in an individualistic versus collectivistic culture. Participants (N = 230) answered an online survey on music-evoked emotions and related personal meanings. A mixed-method approach using factor analysis and qualitative content analysis was used to identify the concepts for cross-cultural comparison. Results show that both cultures value music for positive emotional experiences, but the prevalence of more detailed emotional nuances and underlying meanings is distinctively different. The highest-scoring emotion factor for Finns was Power-Empowerment while for Indians it was Peaceful-Transcendence. For Finns, the personal relevance of music was distinctively related to self-enhancement, self-reflective insights, and self-expression, while for Indians the relevance was particularly related to using music as a mood management tool for reaching positive, relaxed, and motivated affective states. Both cultures found music important for experiencing social connection. The results partly reflect the individualistic-collectivistic dimensionality of cultures and emphasize the relevance of contextualizing music psychological knowledge of music-evoked emotions in individuals’ culturally bound meaning-making processes.

Keywordseverydaymusicemotionseveryday lifecross-cultural research

Free keywordsmusic listening; emotions; cross-cultural comparison; everyday life; psychological functions

Contributing organizations

Related projects

Ministry reportingYes

Reporting Year2021

JUFO rating3

Last updated on 2024-22-04 at 21:50