A1 Journal article (refereed)
Impacts of Touch Screen Size, User Interface Design, and Subtask Boundaries on In-Car Task's Visual Demand and Driver Distraction (2020)

Grahn, H., & Kujala, T. (2020). Impacts of Touch Screen Size, User Interface Design, and Subtask Boundaries on In-Car Task's Visual Demand and Driver Distraction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 142, Article 102467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2020.102467

JYU authors or editors

Publication details

All authors or editors: Grahn, Hilkka; Kujala, Tuomo

Journal or series: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

ISSN: 1071-5819

eISSN: 1095-9300

Publication year: 2020

Volume: 142

Article number: 102467

Publisher: Elsevier

Publication country: United Kingdom

Publication language: English

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2020.102467

Publication open access: Not open

Publication channel open access:

Publication is parallel published (JYX): https://jyx.jyu.fi/handle/123456789/69650


Visual distraction by secondary in-car tasks is a major contributing factor in traffic incidents. In-car user interface design may mitigate these negative effects but to accomplish this, design factors’ visual distraction potential should be better understood. The effects of touch screen size, user interface design, and subtask boundaries on in-car task's visual demand and visual distraction potential were studied in two driving simulator experiments with 48 participants. Multilevel modeling was utilized to control the visual demands of driving and individual differences on in-car glance durations. The 2.5” larger touch screen slightly decreased the in-car glance durations and had a diminishing impact on both visual demand and visual distraction potential of the secondary task. Larger relative impact was discovered concerning user interface design: an automotive-targeted application decreased the visual demand and visual distraction potential of the in-car tasks compared to the use of regular smartphone applications. Also, impact of subtask boundaries was discovered: increase in the preferred number of visual or visual-manual interaction steps during a single in-car glance (e.g., pressing one button vs. typing one word) increased the duration of the in-car glance and its visual distraction potential. The findings also emphasize that even if increasing visual demand of a task – as measured by in-car glance duration or number of glances – may increase its visual distraction potential, these two are not necessarily equal.

Keywords: human-computer interaction; automotive engineering; user interfaces; touch screen; eyesight; eye tracking

Free keywords: visual distraction; visual demand; visual occlusion; in-vehicle user interface; subtask boundary; multilevel model

Contributing organizations

Ministry reporting: Yes

Reporting Year: 2020

JUFO rating: 3

Last updated on 2022-20-09 at 13:29